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CQL - Range specifiers

Many keyword options are followed by optional range specifiers. A range specifier either consists of a single integer, optionally prefixed by a comparative operator, or two integers (without comparative operators) separated by whitespace.

In case of two integers the range between the integers (inclusive this values) will denote the specified range. If only one value is given this denotes the range. If this single integer is prefixed by a comparative operator, a range will be specified which is open at one boundary:

> More than
>= At least
< Less than
<= At most

note The form with preceding comparative operator is not part of the CQL standard.

Furthermore there are two special values defined: is defining an empty range, and * is defining an arbitrary value (this means a range which is unlimited at both boundaries). But these special values are nor applicable in every query, it depends on the query whether it is permitted to use it (in most cases when searching for game information, but in general not when searching for positions).

note The special ranges and * are not part of the CQL standard.


In following examples ranges will be used for year specifications, e.g. to find games within a certain year range.


Denotes the year 1934.

1934 2000

Denotes the years between 1934 and 2000 inclusive.


Denotes all the years after 1933.


Denotes all the years before 1935.


Find all games having any game date, this is excluding games not having a game date.

Find all games not having a game date.